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(FAQ) Mafunso Ofunsidwa Kawirikawiri Okhudza Pampu Zamankhwala

Nthawi: 2017-08-25


1.Funso: How kupewa kuthawa, cavitation phenomenon pakugwira ntchito?

 A: Kupanda mpweya: ngati pampu ili ndi mpweya ndi madzi, mpopeyo sungathe ntchito, otaya ndi kukakamizidwa amakhala ziro. Cavitation: ikuchitika mkati mpope pa ntchito, kuchokera sing'anga mkati mpope, kuyenda ndi Kuthamanga kumasintha ndi kugwa, zomwe zimapangitsa kuti pakhale hydraulic shock. Nthawi zambiri tenga mpweya wopanda pampopo umadza chifukwa cha chodabwitsa chomwe chili mu mpope, chifukwa kuti unsembe wa luso payipi kutayikira, mpweya mpweya chifukwa cha kusamutsidwa wakhala osowa, ambiri a iwo chifukwa cha kusintha mu ntchito ndi ndondomeko anayambitsa. Pofuna kupewa kapena kuwongolera kupezeka kwa cavitation, pakugwira ntchito kwa mpope kupita pang'onopang'ono, kuchepetsa kuthamanga komanso kutentha sikungawonekere kusintha kwakukulu. Pamzere wa pampu woyamwa ziyenera kuletsa gasi kukhala, kulowetsedwa kolowera ndikukakamiza koyipa kwa pampu yoyimilira cholowera chiyenera kutsekedwa. 


2.Kodi dynamic match, static ndi chiyani? Kodi pali kusiyana kotani pakati pawo?

1) machesi amphamvu: kukula kwenikweni kwa dzenje ndikokulirapo kuposa kukula kwenikweni kwa mpope

2) kukwanira kofanana: kukula kwenikweni kwa shaft ndikokulirapo kuposa bowo lomwe lapangidwa ndi machesi;

3) kusiyana kodziwikiratu: kuyenerana kwamphamvu, nsonga ya awiriwo; kukula kwenikweni wa dzenje ndi lalikulu kuposa kukula kwenikweni kwa dzenje; Bowo akhoza kuchita mayendedwe achibale; static fit: olamulira ndi dzenje sizichitika wachibale kuyenda. 


3.Kodi zofunika zinayi zofunika pakukonza zida ndi ziti?

Yankho: Yaudongo, yaudongo, yopaka mafuta komanso yotetezeka 


4.Kodi mfundo yogwirira ntchito ya chisindikizo cha labyrinth ndi chiyani?

A: Labyrinth chisindikizo: pali zingapo zokonzedwa motsatana ndi mphete mano, mano ndi rotor kupanga angapo throttling kusiyana ndi kukula kwa danga, madzimadzi kudzera mokhota zambiri ndi kutembenuka kwa njira, pambuyo mobwerezabwereza throttling ndi kutulutsa kukana kwambiri, Kotero kuti madzimadzi ndi ovuta kutayikira, kusindikiza cholinga. 


5.Kodi kusinthasintha kwa magawo ndi chiyani? Chotsatira chachikulu ndi chiyani?

 A: 1) magawo angagwiritsidwe ntchito kusinthanitsa wina ndi mzake, ndi kukwaniritsa magawo oyambirira a zizindikiro, otchedwa magawo kusinthana.

2) idasewera yosavuta kukonza, kuchepetsa nthawi yokonza, kukonza kagwiritsidwe ntchito ka zida ndi ntchito yaukadaulo.


6.Kodi mpope wamagetsi ndi chiyani?

A: mphamvu pampu imatumiza mphamvu mosalekeza kuti ikhale yamadzimadzi, kupangitsa liwiro lake kukhala losinthasintha mphamvu ndi kuthamanga kuwonjezeka, amene makamaka liwiro kumawonjezeka, ndiye ake liwiro limachepetsedwa, limatha kugwiritsa ntchito mphamvu ya kinetic kukhala yokakamiza, ntchito chawonjezeka madzi kuperekedwa pambuyo kukakamizidwa kuti mayendedwe, monga: 1) pampu ya vane, imakhala ndi a pampu yapakati, pampu yosakanikirana, pampu ya axial flow, pampu ya vortexndi zina; 2) pampu ya jet, kuphatikiza pampu ya gasi, pampu yamadzimadzi, Ndi zina zotero.


7.Kodi ndi chiyani Pompo yabwino yosamuka?

 A: Yankho: zabwino kusamutsidwa mpope m'kati mwa nthawi sinthani voliyumu ya pampu, kuti igwire ntchito komanso nthawi kusintha kusamutsidwa kutengerapo mphamvu kunyamulidwa madzi, kotero kupanikizika kumakwera molunjika ku kukakamiza kofunikira kuti mukwaniritse mtengo pambuyo pake kutumiza, monga: 1) mpope wobwerezabwereza, pampu ya pistoni, pampu ya plunger, mapampu a diaphragm, extrusion, etc; 2) rotor mpope, kuphatikiza pampu yamagetsi, pampu yowononga, pampu ya rotz, pampu ya pistoni yozungulira, pampu yolumikizira, pampu ya crankshaft, pampu yosinthira yozungulira, pampu ya peristaltic,etc.


8.Kodi magawo a magwiridwe antchito ndi ati makulidwe Pump, pampu yamoto?

Yankho: makamaka zikuphatikizapo: kuyenda, mutu, NPSH, liwiro, mphamvu ya rotor ndi kuchita bwino ndi zina zotero.


9.N'chifukwa chiyani mukufunikira disk drive yokhazikika pazida zopuma? Kodi tiyenera kulabadira chiyani?

Yankho: 1) wokhazikika litayamba pagalimoto kwa zida yopuma, mmodzi ndi kufufuza ngati zida zimasinthasintha komanso ngati pali kukana kwamakhadi; Chachiwiri ndi kupewa kubala deformation ndi zina zotero, kwenikweni ntchito standby. 2) tcheru ayenera kuperekedwa kwa: mmodzi ndi kuti amasiya udindo wa rotor pambuyo pa mbale ndi madigiri 180 kuchokera pamalo oyambirira; The gawo lachiwiri ndi mafuta mafuta mafuta mpope ayenera kukhala mafuta, Pambuyo kutembenuza galimoto, kuteteza kuwonongeka kubala.


10.Choopsa chapano ndi chiyani a pompa yopingasa?

A: Mphamvu yamagetsi yamagetsi yomwe ili mumagetsi ovotera, ovotera mphamvu mu nkhani ya ntchito yachibadwa ya panopa, ngati kuposa panopa oveteredwa, ndi galimoto n'zosavuta kutenthedwa, relay chitetezo chipangizo kanthu, kotero kuti kuyimitsidwa kwapampu, monga chipangizo chotetezera cholumikizira sichinthu kapena kuchitapo kanthu Zosavuta kuwotcha mota, kuwonongeka ndi pampu ya centrifugal.


11.Zomwe zili m'nkhaniyi ndi chiyani makina a pompa kuyendera? 

Yankho: 1) onani ngati chizindikiro cha choyezera kuthamanga kapena ammeter chili mkati malo osankhidwa ndi okhazikika; 2) fufuzani ngati phokoso likuthamanga zachilendo ndipo palibe phokoso; 3) ngati kutentha kwa kubala ndi injini ndi yachibadwa (osapitirira madigiri 60); 4) onani ngati madzi ozizira samatsekedwa, pampu yonyamula katundu, kutayikira kwa makina osindikizira, monga ngati kutayikira kuli mkati mwazololedwa; 5) onani ngati malo olowa nawo ali olimba komanso ngati bawuti ya nangula ndi yotayirira; 6) fufuzani ngati mafutawo ndi abwino komanso mlingo wamafuta ndi wabwinobwino.



12.Kodi woyendetsa ntchitoyo agwire ntchito yotani pamene okonza akugwira ntchito?

A) 1) Onani ngati tikiti yautumiki ikugwirizana ndi zenizeni nambala ya zida za zida zomwe zikuyenera kukonzedwa; 2) Lumikizanani ndi polojekiti kupeza kuzima kwa magetsi; 3) Perekani kuwonongeka kwa zida ndi kukonza magawo enieni kwa ogwira ntchito yokonza; 4) Kusamalira ndi kuyang'anira khalidwe la chisamaliro; 5) pambuyo pomaliza kukonza, kukhudzana ndi magetsi, kuyesa; 6) pambuyo yachibadwa ntchito, kuyang'anira ntchito yowunika, ndi kupanga mbiri.


13.Ntchito ya mpope ndi chiyani polowera ndi ma valve otuluka?

A) 1) valavu yolowera pampu ndikukonza pampu pomwe pampu ili akutali kapena kudula dongosolo zigawo zikuluzikulu, sangathe ntchito kusintha otaya ayenera kutseguka kwathunthu;

 2) valavu yotulutsira ndikuwongolera kuyenda ndikutsegula kapena kutseka mpope pamene dongosolo lodzipatula la zigawozo.


14.Chemical ndondomeko Pump molingana ndi kusankha kwanji kwa chisindikizo?

 A: Malinga ndi momwe zinthu ziliri komanso kuthamanga kwa ntchito, kusankha kwa dzimbiri kwapakatikati mozungulira.


15.Ndi mitundu yanji ya zisindikizo za flat gasket?

 Yankho: 1) si zitsulo khushoni chisindikizo; 2) osakhala zitsulo ndi zitsulo gulu gasket zisindikizo; 3) chitsulo khushoni chisindikizo.


16.Kodi zifukwa zazikulu za kutayikira kwa gasket ndi ziti?

 A: 1) kutayikira chifukwa cha kapangidwe; A flange ndi flanged chivundikirocho si osankhidwa bwino; B gasket kusankha sikoyenera; C flange ndi zida za bawuti sizimasankhidwa.

 2) kutayikira chifukwa cha kupanga, kukhazikitsa ndi kugwira ntchito; A flange ndi kulondola kwa makina a gasket sikukwaniritsa zofunikira zaukadaulo; B kumangitsa mabawuti, osayenera ntchito, kuchititsa gasket kupatuka; C flange nkhope yosindikiza si yoyera kapena yodetsedwa.


17.Kodi makina osindikizira ndi chiyani?

Yankho: makina chisindikizo, amatchedwanso nkhope ndi osachepera awiri mapeto a nkhope vertical axis rotation, pansi pa mphamvu ya madzimadzi ndi Malipiro limagwirira, kupanga malekezero awiri pamodzi, ndi wachibale kutsetsereka ndi kuteteza chipangizo madzi kutayikira.


18.Ndi mitundu ingati ya zisindikizo zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri pamapampu a makina?

Yankho: pali mitundu iwiri, chisindikizo champhamvu ndi chisindikizo chokhazikika.


19.Kodi zomwe zimayambitsa kutayikira kwa makina osindikizira ndi chiyani?

 A: 1) mapeto osindikizira a mphete yosuntha ndipo mphete yosasunthika yavala kwambiri ndipo coefficient yotsegula siloyenera pakupanga. kuti a kusindikiza kumapeto kumatha kutulutsa ming'alu, mapindikidwe ndi kusweka. 2) zolakwika mu mphete zingapo zosindikizira kapena zolakwika chifukwa chosayenera kusonkhanitsa, ndi kusankha zisindikizo zothandizira zosayenera kugwira ntchito wapakati. 3) kasupe chisanadze kumalimbitsa mphamvu sikokwanira kapena patapita nthawi yaitali ntchito, fracture, dzimbiri, kupumula, kuphika, komanso ntchito sing'anga ya crystallization inaimitsidwa particles kapena nthawi yaitali kudzikundikira kwapakatikati pakuloledwa kwa kasupe, kumayambitsa kulephera kwa masika, chisindikizo mphete singakhoze kuyandama, kutayikira; 4) chifukwa ofukula Kupatuka kwa malekezero osindikizira ndi nsonga ya chisindikizo cha static ring nakonso chachikulu, kusindikiza kumapeto kwa nkhope yosindikiza sikuli kolimba mokwanira kuchititsa kutayikira; 5) chifukwa mbali ya axial ya shaft ndi yayikulu, the mbali kugwirizana ndi chisindikizo si bwino chikufanana kapena khalidwe ndi osauka, amene sachedwa kutayikira.


20.Ndizinthu ziti zokhudzana ndi kukangana kwa chisindikizo cha makina zomwe ziyenera kusankhidwa?

Yankho: malingana ndi chikhalidwe cha sing'anga, kuthamanga kwa ntchito, kutentha, kutsetsereka liwiro ndi zinthu zina kusankha, nthawi zina kuganiziranso kuthekera kwa kukangana kowuma kwakanthawi kochepa mukayamba kapena kuswa membrane.

21. Kodi ndi njira ziti zogwira mtima zomwe zosindikizira za labyrinth zimawonjezera kukana kwa media? 

Yankho: 1) kuchepetsa chilolezo, 2) kulimbitsa eddies, 3) kuwonjezera chiwerengero cha mano osindikizidwa, 4) kuyesa kutembenuza mphamvu ya kinetic ya mpweya wotuluka kutentha mphamvu


22. Kodi mfundo zogwirira ntchito zosindikizira mphete zoyandama ndi ziti?

Yankho: mphete yoyandama yosindikizira imachokera ku mphamvu ya throttling yomwe imapangidwa mkati mpata wopapatiza pakati pa olamulira ndi mphete yoyandama, ndi kusindikiza mafuta amene ali pamwamba mpweya kuthamanga ndi jekeseni chilolezo kuti kukwaniritsa cholinga chosindikiza gasi.


23. Kodi chifukwa cha kuwonjezeka kwa kutayikira kwa kugula ndi chiyani?

 Yankho: 1) kugwiritsa ntchito mphete yoyandama kwa nthawi yayitali, kuvala kwanthawi zonse ndi kung'ambika, kukulitsa kusiyana; 2) kutsetsereka kwa tsinde la dzenje loyandama la mphete ndi lovuta komanso lolondola ndi otsika. 3) zosayenera msonkhano zimayambitsa kupatuka, ndi ubwenzi wa chomangira chapakati chimatayika, kotero kuti kutuluka kwa mafuta kumatuluka mipata ina, ndiko kuwonjezeka kwa kutayikira;


24.Kodi ntchito ya chishango chamafuta ndi yotani? Momwe mungapangire miyeso ya gap ya mafuta ndikusintha? 

Yankho: 1) ntchito ya chipika chamafuta ndikuletsa kunyamula mafuta kuti zisayende pamodzi ndi khosi la axial mpaka kunja kwa kunyamula, ndipo pali ziwiri mitundu ya unsembe udindo: mmodzi ali pa kubala pedestal ndi ina ili pa ekseli. 2) Chilolezo chosunga mafuta chimatha kuyezedwa ndi woyezera pamene chipika chamafuta chikuphwanyidwa kapena kuphatikizidwa. Pamaso wa kusiyana kwa mafuta pakati pa chitsulo, akhoza kumasuka bwino. Mu nkhope ya kusiyana mafuta pakati pa midadada kubala, chofunika ndi okhwima. Mbali yapansi ndi 0.05-0.10mm, ndipo mbali ziwirizo ndi 0.10-0.20mm, ndi kumtunda ndi 0.20-0.25 mm.


25. Kodi ndi zinthu ziti zomwe zimakhudza chisindikizo cha labyrinth?

A: 1) kusiyana pakati pa chilolezo cha radial ndi chachikulu kwambiri, kapena kusiyana pakati kumene m'malo mpweya chisindikizo mphete ndi laling'ono kwambiri; 2) chisindikizo kapena gasi mphete yosindikizira, pakati pa mano chifukwa cha kutha ndi kuzimiririka, kapena chifukwa cha yaitali kuvala pambuyo mapindikidwe kutentha, chifukwa cha kulephera kugwiritsa ntchito; 3) mutatha kugwiritsa ntchito kwa nthawi yayitali, kasupe kufooka, mapindikidwe, mwamsanga kusindikiza mphete sangathe kufika pa malo anaika, pambuyo ntchito, mpweya kudzikundikira fumbi, dothi, ndi sing'anga kusindikiza kupanikizika ndi otsika kuposa ntchito sing'anga kuthamanga ndi kuthamanga kusakhazikika, etc.


26.Kodi mitundu yodziwika bwino ya zisindikizo zosuntha ndi ziti?

 Yankho: chisindikizo mbale mbale, mphete, wononga chisindikizo, pneumatic chisindikizo, hydraulic chisindikizo, chisindikizo cha centrifugal, chisindikizo chonyamula, chisindikizo cha labyrinth, chisindikizo cha makina, ndi zina.


27.Kodi zifukwa zazikulu zomwe zimakhudza chisindikizo ndi chiyani?

 Yankho: 1) kudzisindikizira yekha khalidwe, 2) ndondomeko ntchito chikhalidwe, 3) msonkhano kukhazikitsa molondola, 4) kulondola kwa alendo, 5) kusindikiza njira yothandizira.


28.Kodi zigawo za makina chisindikizo ndi chiyani?

 Yankho: Chisindikizo cha makina chimapangidwa ndi mphete yosasunthika, mphete yosuntha, chipukuta misozi makina a buffer, mphete yosindikizira yothandizira ndi njira yotumizira. The mapeto a nkhope ya mphete yosasunthika ndi mphete yosuntha ndi perpendicular kwa nsonga ya mpope ndikulumikizana pamodzi kuti apange malo osindikizira ozungulira. Ring'i yokhazikika ndi gland, zonse zimachitidwa ndi mphete yosindikizira mphete pa shaft, kubweza kwa buffering mechanism drive mphete pamodzi ndi kayendedwe ka axial, kukhalabe mphete ndi nkhope yokhazikika ya mphete, ndi kuvala kwa mphete yosindikizira kumaso kuti alipire.


29.Kodi mawonekedwe a makina osindikizira ndi otani?

Yankho: 1) ntchito yabwino yosindikiza, kutayikira kwa zisindikizo zamakina nthawi zambiri 0.01 mpaka 5 ml / h, malinga ndi zofunikira zapadera, ndi mapangidwe apadera, kupanga makina osindikizira kutayikira kwa 0.01 ml / h, komanso ngakhale zing'onozing'ono, ndi kutayika kwa chisindikizo cholongedza kwa 3-80 - ml / h (malinga ndi zofunika makonzedwe a dziko lathu, pamene awiri a chitsulo chogwira matayala si wamkulu kuposa 50 mm zikutanthauza otaya ndi wofanana 3 ml/h, pamene awiri a ekseli ndi 50 mm kutanthauza kuti kutuluka ndikofanana ndi 5 ml / h);

 2) kutalika kwa moyo wake, nthawi zambiri kuposa 8000h;

 3) mphamvu yaing'ono, 20% mpaka 30% yokha ya zosindikizira;

 4) palibe kusuntha kwachibale pakati pa tsinde ndi manja a shaft ndi Zisindikizo, ndipo palibe kukangana, ndi manja axial ndi axial ali moyo wautali;

 5) kusindikiza pamwamba pa makina osindikizira ndi perpendicular kwa mpope axis, ndipo chisindikizocho chikhoza kutulutsa kusuntha nthawi iliyonse pamene shaft ya pampu ikugwedezeka. Chifukwa chake, kugwedezeka kumatha kukhalabe ntchito yabwino yosindikiza pamene ili mumtundu wina;

 6) makina chisindikizo pa ntchito yosindikiza kuthamanga kwamadzimadzi ndi mphamvu ya masika, sungani static/dynamic mphete yosindikiza pamwamba, ndikudalira mphamvu yamasika kuti amalipiritsa kuvala, kotero kamodzi kutumizidwa koyenera, mu ntchito mpope ambiri safuna kusintha kawirikawiri, zosavuta kugwiritsa ntchito, kukhathamiritsa kochepa;

 7) angagwiritsidwe ntchito kutentha, kutentha otsika, kuthamanga, kuthamanga kwambiri ndi dzimbiri amphamvu;

 8) Kuthetsa mavuto ndi kusinthidwa kwa magawo sikoyenera ndipo kumatha kukonzedwa pambuyo poyimitsa magalimoto;

 9) ndi kapangidwe ndi zovuta, kulondola msonkhano ndi apamwamba, msonkhano ndi unsembe ndi zina zofunika luso;

 10) mitengo yapamwamba yopangira.


30.Kodi zazikulu khalidwe magawo a makina chisindikizo?

Yankho: 1) m'mimba mwake a ekseli: mpope makina chisindikizo trunnion dera zambiri ndi 6-200 - mm, wapadera ndi 400 mm, m'mimba mwake wa mpope gwero zambiri mu kufunikira kwamphamvu pozungulira kapena kugwiritsa ntchito kolala kuti igwirizane kwa makina chisindikizo muyezo awiri a ekiselo;

2) liwiro: zambiri, liwiro la mpope ndi yemweyo, liwiro kasinthasintha wa mpope wamba wa centrifugal ndi wocheperako kapena wofanana ndi 3000r/mphindi; The liwilo centrifugal mpope ndi zosakwana kapena wofanana 8000r/mphindi, ndi mpope wapadera ndi wocheperapo kapena wofanana ndi 4000r / min;

3) avereji circumference liwiro la kusindikiza pamwamba: circumference liniya liwiro la pafupifupi awiri a kusindikiza mapeto pamwamba. Avereji liniya liwiro la kusindikiza chivundikirocho ndi chachikulu kwa Kutentha ndi kuvala kwa malo osindikizira (kumenyana). Ambiri, a kuzungulira kwa chisindikizo chotulutsidwa ndi chocheperapo kuposa 30m/s; The circumferential liwiro la ntchito masika stationary makina chisindikizo ndi zosakwana mamita 100 pa sekondi iliyonse. Chapadera chingakhale chocheperako kapena chofanana ndi 150m/s;

4) kuthamanga kwa chiŵerengero cha nkhope: nkhope yomaliza ndi kukakamiza kolumikizana (MPa) pansi pa malo osindikizira. Nkhope yomaliza ya nkhope yosindikiza iyenera kukhala kulamuliridwa m'njira yoyenera, ndipo ntchito yosindikiza idzatero kuchepetsedwa ndi oversize, ndipo chivundikiro chosindikizira chidzatenthedwa ndi kuvala ndi msonkhano waukulu. Chisindikizo cha makina a pampu ndichomveka mapeto a chiŵerengero cha kuthamanga kwapamwamba: chisindikizo chopangidwa ndi makina, nthawi zambiri Pc = 0.3-0.6mpa; Kwa kutsitsa kwakunja, PC = 0.15-0.4mpa. Bwino lubricity pamene mavuto enieni akhoza kuwonjezeka moyenerera, apamwamba kukhuthala kwa filimu yamadzimadzi kumawonjezera kupanikizika kwapadera, avalible Pc = 0.5 -0.7 MPa madzimadzi osasunthika pang'ono, mafuta ayenera kutenga Mapeto ang'onoang'ono amakumana ndi kuthamanga kwapadera, zabwino kupezeka = 0.3-0.3 MPa.




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